Bulk density, also called soil density, is the ratio of the total mass of a soil to the total volume.
$latex \rho = \frac{m_t}{V_t}\newline\newline
=\frac{m_w + m_s}{V_g + V_w + V_s}&s=2$
Where:
ρ = bulk density (kg/m^{3} or lb/ft^{3})
m_{t} = Total mass (kg or lbs)
m_{w} = Mass of water (kg or lbs)
m_{s} = Mass of solids (kg or lbs)
V_{t} = Total Volume (m^{3} or ft^{3})
V_{g} = Volume of air (m^{3} or ft^{3})
V_{w} = Volume of water (m^{3} or ft^{3})
V_{s} = Volume of solids (m^{3} or ft^{3})
Typical Bulk Densities
Soil Type | Bulk Density | |
---|---|---|
kg/m^{3} | lb/ft^{3} | |
Sand | 1,600 – 2,000 | 100 – 125 |
Silt | 1,200 – 1,350 | 75 – 84 |
Clay | 1,100 – 1,400 | 69 – 87 |
Sandstone | 2,150 – 2,650 | 134 – 165 |
Igneous Rocks | 2,550 – 2,950 | 159 – 184 |
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